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Экскурсия Булгаковская Москва

Экскурсия Булгаковская Москва

30 Июн 2022 Просмотров:66

Древняя столица России, Москва, любимый многими город. Она готовит приятные и познавательные сюрпризы даже тем...

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Драгоценные камни аметисты и опалы имеют такую же химическую формулу, как и речной песок, а рубин имеет формулу белой глины.

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Introduction to Pharmacology
29.04.2022 06:12

Pharmacology:

Pharmacodynamics:

Cannabidiol has a low affinity for the cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors, although it may act as an antagonist of CB1/CB2 agonists despite low affinity. Cannabidiol may be an antagonist of GPR55, a G protein-coupled receptor and putative cannabinoid receptor expressed in the caudate nucleus and putamen in the brain. It can also act as an inverse agonist of GPR3, GPR6, and GPR12. CBD has been shown to act as a partial agonist of the serotonin 5-HT1A receptor. In high concentrations, CBD acts as an inverse agonist of 5-HT1A receptors. Pharmacological effects of CBD may include PPAR agonism, inhibition of voltage-gated cation channels, and intracellular calcium release.

Pharmacokinetics:

The oral bioavailability of cannabidiol in humans is about 6%, whereas its bioavailability by inhalation is 11 to 45% (mean 31%). The elimination half-life of CBD is 18–32 hours. Cannabidiol is metabolized in the liver as well as the intestine by the cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP2B6, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2J2, and CYP3A4 and is formed by a variety of 7-hydroxycannabidiol isoenzymes UGT1A7, UGT1A7, and UGT2B7. CYP3A4 facilitates the decarbonylation of CBD to liberate carbon monoxide, a bioactive gasotransmitter, and pharmaceutical candidate. There can be a wide difference in CBD dosage. The use of cbd gummies for sleep is done in many countries. The full spectrum cbd oil and cbd capsules 25mg can be purchased from any offline store.

Pharmaceutical preparations:

Nabiximols (brand name Sativex), an oromucosal spray containing cannabidiol (CBD), delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and additional cannabinoid and non-cannabinoid components from Cannabis sativa plants, was approved by Health Canada in 2005 for the treatment of central neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis, and in 2007 for cancer-related pain. In New Zealand, Sativex is approved for use "as an add-on treatment for symptom improvement in people with moderate to severe spasticity due to multiple sclerosis who have responded adequately to other anti-spasticity medications. One of the orally administered cannabidiol solutions is the Epidiolex. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved this in the year 2018 for its application in the treatment of two rare forms of childhood epilepsy. These 2 rare forms of childhood epilepsy are Dravet syndrome and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, and the treatment associated with the tuberous sclerosis complex. In the United States, the use of it is approved in these indications for patients that are in the age group of one year or older.

 

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